We often eat mushrooms in our lives. The most common ones are Shiitake, Russula, Flammulina, and Pleurotus eryngii, which ones do you know? There are many types of mushrooms. We know that some mushrooms are poisonous. How can we tell them? This article introduces some of our common mushrooms and related knowledge.
Shiitake mushroom is the fruiting body of Pleurotus ostreatus. It is the second edible fungus in the world and one of my country’s specialties. It is known as the “mountain treasure” among the folks. Shiitake is a fungus that grows on wood. The taste is delicious, the aroma is refreshing, and the nutrition is rich. It is rich in vitamin B complex, iron, potassium, original vitamin D, sweet in taste and mild in nature. Indications loss of appetite, less gas and fatigue.
2. Straw mushroom
Straw mushrooms, also known as orchid mushrooms and budfoot mushrooms, originated in Nanhua Temple in Shaoguan, Guangdong. China began artificial cultivation 300 years ago. It was introduced to the world by overseas Chinese in the 1930s. It is an important tropical and subtropical mushroom. It is the third largest cultivated edible fungus in the world. The production of straw mushrooms in China ranks first in the world, mainly distributed in southern China. It is so named because it often grows in damp and rotten straw. It is mostly produced in Guangdong, Guangdong, Fujian, Jiangxi, and Taiwan. It is large, thick, short shank, smooth and delicious.
3. Enoki mushroom
Flammulina velutipes is named for its slender stalk resembling golden needles. It belongs to the genus Flammulina of the family Agaricaceae. It is a kind of algae lichens and has high medicinal and therapeutic effects. It is widely distributed in nature, including China, Japan, Russia, Europe, North America, Australia and other places. From Heilongjiang in the north, Yunnan in the south, Jiangsu in the east, and Xinjiang in the west, it is suitable for the growth of Flammulina velutipes.
4. Pleurotus eryngii
Pleurotus eryngii is named for its aroma of almonds and the taste of abalone. It is a new species of rare edible fungus that has been successfully developed and cultivated in recent years and integrates edible, medicinal and dietetic functions. There are many Pleurotus eryngii products in the market, such as Baishanzu mushroom side dishes-Pleurotus eryngii, Pleurotus eryngii extract, instant Pleurotus eryngii in small packages, and individual packages of Pleurotus eryngii.
5. Agaricus bisporus
Agaricus bisporus is one of the most common edible fungi with thick meat. The mycelium is silvery white, the growth rate is relatively fast, it is not easy to form a quilt, the fruiting body is mostly solitary, round, white, without scales, the cap is thick, not easy to open, the stalk is thick and short, and the flesh is white. The tissue is firm, with a half-membrane ring on the stem, and the spores are silver-brown. Native to Europe and North America, humans have been eating it since at least the ancient Greek era. Artificial cultivation began in France and other places in the 17th century, and is now widely cultivated all over the world.
The fruit bodies of red mushrooms are generally medium-sized, with a cap diameter of 5 to 12 cm. They are initially flattened and hemispherical and then flattened. When young, they are sticky, dull or velvety. The color of the middle part is dark red to dark (black) red, and the edges are light and dark. Red, with fine horizontal lines on the lid margin. The flesh is white, thick, and often eaten by insects. Good taste and smell. The gills are white, turning to creamy yellow when they are old, and may be reddish near the margin of the lid, slightly dense to slightly sparse, often bifurcated, with transverse veins between the folds.
Boletus is a general term for fungi such as Boleteaceae and Boleteaceae. Most of them are edible except for a few species that are poisonous or bitter and inedible. Yunnan Province is rich in boletus resources, mainly white, yellow, black and red boletus. It is named for its thick meat, which resembles beef liver. It is a rare and rare wild edible fungus. It is one of the “four kings of fungus”. There are mainly white, yellow and black boletus.
8. Pleurotus ostreatus
Pleurotus ostreatus is an edible fungus of four-polar heterogeneous combination, and its life history is similar to that of many higher basidiomycetes. The fruit bodies mature to produce basidiomycetes. The basidiomycetes are ejected from the gills of the mature fruiting body, and when they encounter a suitable environment, they sprout tubes. They are multinucleated at the initial stage and quickly form a septum. Each cell is relatively flat, orderly and dense, without the phenomenon of “yellow tips”, and overgrown. After a few days, old fungus skin tends to appear, which is tight and hard.
The chanterelle is one of the four famous bacteria in the world. It is the fruiting body of the fungus chanterelles. The fruiting body is fleshy, trumpet-shaped, apricot-yellow to egg-yellow, and the cap is 3-9 cm wide. concave. The fungus meat is yellow and delicious. It is rich in nutrients such as carotene, vitamin C, protein, calcium, phosphorus, iron, etc. It has the effects of clearing eyes, lungs, and stomach. Regular consumption of this bacteria can prevent vision loss, ophthalmia, dry skin and other diseases.
There are more than 350 kinds of mushrooms known in our country, among which there are more than 30 kinds of artificially cultivated mushrooms, such as shiitake mushrooms, enoki mushrooms, oyster mushrooms, hericium edodes and bamboo fungus. According to statistics, oyster mushrooms, shiitake mushrooms, and enoki mushrooms are the most common. So what are the different nutritional characteristics of these common mushrooms? Let’s talk about the types of mushrooms.
1. Edible mushrooms
Edible mushrooms are ideal natural foods or multifunctional foods. At present, the most eaten mushroom in the world is commonly called mushroom, and the scientific name is Agaricus bisporus. There is great potential for further screening domesticated high-quality production strains from wild species. For the first time in the world, China domesticated and cultivated successfully shiitake mushrooms, fungus, golden ears, white fungus, straw mushrooms, enoki mushrooms, hericium erinaceus, bamboo fungus, etc. It has now domesticated Mongolian mushrooms, and wild edible mushrooms, boletus edulis, Morel mushrooms, apricot mushrooms, rivet mushrooms, boletus edulis, and red mushrooms can also be collected in large quantities and sold in domestic and foreign markets.
2. White yellow pleurotus
Also known as Pleurotus ostreatus and Pleurotus violaceus.
The fruiting bodies are medium to large. The cap is 5-13cm in diameter, initially flattened hemispherical, after stretching, the base is concave and smooth, lead-gray when it is young, then grayish-white to nearly white, sometimes slightly light brown, with thin and smooth edges, involute when young, and often later Was wavy. The flesh is white and slightly thicker. The gills are wide, slightly dense, extended and interwoven on the stalk, white to nearly white. The stalk is short, flat or lateral, solid inside, smooth, 2-5cm long, 0.6-2.5cm thick, and often connected at the base.
Born on broad-leaved tree trunks in spring and autumn, it grows in clusters near shingles, distributed in Hebei, Heilongjiang, Jilin, Shandong, Jiangsu, Sichuan, Anhui, Jiangxi, Henan, Guangxi, Xinjiang, Yunnan and other regions.
Pleurotus ostreatus is a kind of edible mushroom cultivated in large quantities. You can buy a catty for a few yuan in the market. It tastes delicious. It can be used for cooking and soup, and it can cure swelling and pain. Tests have shown that the inhibition rate of mouse sarcoma is 60-80%. The inhibition rate of Ehrlich cancer is 60-70%.
3. Deep concave cup umbrella
The fruit body is small. The cap is 5-8cm in diameter, flat hemispherical to flat, and the back middle part is concave in the shape of a funnel. The surface is dry, bright, light earth red to light pink brown. The gills are prolonged, dense, white and unequal in length; the stalk is slender, cylindrical, 4-8cm long and 0.4-1cm thick; the cap is light in color and soft inside. Grows on the ground in broad-leaved forests in summer and autumn, is distributed in Yunnan, Sichuan and other regions of China.
The fruit body is medium to large, ovoid when young, elongated back, 12-20cm high, white or lavender sprocket, 3-5.5cm in diameter, bell-shaped cap, 3-5cm high and wide, with prominent network, with Slightly smelly and dark green spore fluid, flat top, perforated, white curtain, hanging from the cap to more than 10cm, the mesh is polygonal, 5-10mm wide. The stalk is white, hollow, and the wall is spongy. The base is 2-3cm thick and gradually becomes thinner. Group or solitary in bamboo forests or gardens in summer and autumn, distributed in Hebei, Jiangsu, Sichuan, Taiwan, Guangdong, Hong Kong, Guangxi, Hainan, Guizhou, Yunnan and other places in China.
It is edible, but the cap and tray must be removed. It is delicious and delicious. This fungus boiling liquid can prevent the dishes from spoiling and the meat from spoiling. It can be used medicinally to treat dysentery. It has anti-cancer effect, the inhibition rate of mouse sarcoma 180 is 60%, and the inhibition rate of Ehrlich carcinoma is 70%. The fermentation broth of the fruit body has a good effect on hypertension, high cholesterol, and thick abdominal wall fat.
The ascos are small and dark-gray. The cap is 1-2cm in diameter, with a saddle-shaped or irregular saddle-shaped, with complete edges, separated from the stalk. The upper surface, that is, the sub-solid layer, is black to dark gray and flat; the lower surface is gray or dark gray, smooth, without obvious powder particles. . The stalk is cylindrical or flat on the side, slightly curved, black or dark gray, often lighter than the cap, 2.5-4cm long, 0.3-0.4cm thick, with powder particles on the surface, light color at the base, and solid inside. The ascus is cylindrical, 0.2-0.3mm long, containing 8 spores, arranged in a single row. Scatter or grow in groups in the forest in summer and autumn. Distributed in my country’s Hebei, Yunnan, Sichuan, Hunan, Shanxi, Gansu, Xinjiang and other regions.
There is a record of classifying it as an edible fungus.
Also known as saddleella rugosa. The fruit body is small. The fungus cover is saddle-shaped at the beginning, and then opens into irregular petals, 2-4cm, white to light yellow. The surface of the seed layer of the cap. The handle is white, cylindrical, with longitudinal grooves, forming longitudinal edges, 5cm long and 2cm thick. Live alone or in groups in the forest. Distributed in my country’s Hebei, Shanxi, Heilongjiang, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Tibet, Shaanxi, Gansu, Qinghai, Sichuan and other regions. It is edible and tastes good.
Also known as Tricholoma loba and Tricholoma grandiflorum.
The fruiting body is medium to large, white. The cap is 8-23 (32) cm in diameter, thick, hemispherical or flat hemispherical in the initial stage, the edges are rolled inward, and the latter is flat to slightly flat, the center is slightly concave, the surface is smooth or occasionally small protrusions, white, white to light Cream color. The color becomes darker after maturity, and the edge is wavy or partially curled. The flesh is white, dense and slightly starchy. Gills grow straight or curved, dirty white to ivory white, dense to slightly dense, initially narrow and then widening. The stalk is thick and obvious when it is young, swollen like a bottle, and grows 8-28 (45) cm long and 1.5-4.6 cm thick. The base is often connected into a large cluster. The surface has fine line stripes, the same color as the cover, and solid.
In summer and autumn, it grows in clusters near the base of poinciana and other tree stumps and on fertile soil. It is distributed in Taiwan, Guangdong, Hong Kong, Hainan and other places in my country. It is edible and tastes better. It has been tested and cultivated in Taiwan and other places.
Also known as dung bowl.
The fruiting bodies are medium in size, sometimes up to 14cm. In the early stage, it is nearly spherical and gradually stretches out into a cup shape with a sterile stem. The surface of the sub-solid layer is nearly white, gradually turning to light brown, and the outside is white with powder. The inside of the bacteria is white, crisp, and 3-5mm thick.
Born on loam and dung piles in open areas in summer and autumn, they often grow in groups.
Is distributed in my country’s Hebei, Henan, Jiangsu, Yunnan, Taiwan, Sichuan, Tibet and other regions.
Is edible, but it needs to be handled with care and no more food.
Also known as Songmo, Matsutake, Chicken Silk Fungus (Tibet).
The fruiting bodies are medium to large. The cap is 5-10cm in diameter, flat hemispherical to nearly flat, dirty white, with yellowish brown to chestnut brown flat filamentous scales, dry surface. The flesh is white and thick. The gills are white or slightly creamy, dense, curved, and unequal in length. The stalk is relatively thick, 8-13.5cm long and 2-2.6cm thick. Above the fungus ring is dirty white and has powdery particles. Below the fungus ring, there are chestnut brown cilia-like scales, solid inside, and sometimes slightly enlarged at the base. The fungus ring grows on the upper part of the stalk, and is filamentous, white on the top and the same color as the stalk on the bottom.
In autumn, it grows in groups or scattered on the ground in pine forests or mixed coniferous and broad-leaved forests, or forms mushroom circles. It often forms a mycorrhizal relationship with pine trees.
Distributed in my country’s Heilongjiang, Jilin, Anhui, Taiwan, Sichuan, Shanxi, Guizhou, Yunnan, Tibet and other regions.
This kind of fungus is rich in meat, rich in aroma, and delicious. It is a precious wild edible fungus. In Tibet, the people roasted this fungus and dipped it in salt. The taste is also very good. This fungus is regarded as a treasure among mushrooms in Japan and has high economic value. Due to the special ecological habits, the artificial cultivation of fruit bodies has not been successful, and it is in a semi-artificial cultivation state.
According to chemical analysis, the bacteria is rich in protein, fat, and various essential amino acids for the human body. It is also rich in vitamins B1, B2, C and PP. Tricholoma Matsutake has the medicinal effects of strengthening the body, benefiting the stomach, relieving pain, regulating qi and reducing phlegm. The hot water extract of fruit body has an inhibition rate of 91.8% for mouse sarcoma 180 and an inhibition rate of 70% for Ehrlich carcinoma.
This fungus is also an ectomycorrhizal fungus of trees. It is known to form mycorrhiza with red pine, black pine and alpine pine. At present, under the situation of large-scale collection and export of pine mushrooms, it is necessary to take effective measures to strengthen further investigation and research on wild pine mushroom resources in our country, and focus on protecting this precious resource and ecological environment. At the same time, it is necessary to strengthen the research on artificial cultivation of pine mushroom. Tricholoma mongolia
Also known as white mushroom, white mushroom, Mongolian mushroom (Inner Mongolia).
The fruit body is white. The cap is 5-17cm wide, hemispherical to flat layer. White, smooth, curled in the initial edge. The flesh is white and thick. Gills are white, dense, curved and unequal in length. The stipe is stout, white, 3.5-7cm long, 1.5-4.6cm thick, solid inside, and slightly larger at the base.
In summer and autumn, they grow in groups on the grassland and form mushroom circles.
Distributed in my country’s Hebei, Inner Mongolia, Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning and other regions.
The flesh of this kind of bacteria is thick, fine in texture, rich in aroma, and unique and delicious. It is the top grade of “Mushroom” abundant in the grasslands of northern my country, and it is traditionally sold in domestic and foreign markets. According to the characteristics of the size of the fruit body and the different origins, there are many trade names, such as “Pearl Mushroom” when the umbrella is not opened, and “Pia Mushroom” when the umbrella is opened.
Can also be used for medicinal purposes, with a flat nature and sweet taste. It can propagate the intestines and replenish qi, dissipate heat and relieve the surface. To cure measles in children, if you are uncomfortable and irritable, you can use 9 grams of young dried “mushroom nails”, soaked in water and chopped, decocted in water, and taken once and twice a day. Has anti-cancer activity. This kind of mushroom has not been domesticated and cultivated successfully. It may have a symbiotic relationship with some herbaceous plants, or it may be related to the soil microbial flora and its nutritional chemical composition. At this stage, such resources are becoming less and less, and the ecological environment has been damaged to varying degrees. Protecting the ecological environment of resources and researching artificial domestication technologies are important tasks.
Yellow termite umbrella
This fungus is also called yellow chicken longitudinal.
The fruiting bodies are medium to large. The cap is 5-10cm or larger in diameter, conical, bell-shaped or hat-shaped when it is young, nearly flat in the later stage, obviously protruding in the middle, the surface is brown, the top is dark, and the edges are wavy or cracked. The flesh is pure white to dirty white. The gills are white, free, slightly sparse and unequal in length. The stalk is slender, cylindrical, smooth, and white, with a thick base extending downward to connect to the nest, and the inside is solid and fibrous.
Grows on termite nests in summer and autumn, and live in groups.
Is distributed in Yunnan and other places.
Is edible and delicious.
The fruit body is medium-sized, 4-10cm high, light rusty, rusty brown to cinnamon color. The stalk is 2-4cm long, about 1cm thick, multi-branched, upright, with multiple forked branches, and the tip of the branchlets is dentate.
Single or group living in coniferous broad-leaved forests in summer and autumn.
Distributed in Jilin, Yunnan, Tibet and other places. It is widely distributed in Tibet’s forest areas and has a large output.
Is edible, delicious and delicious.
The fruiting body is small, wide gyroscopic or nearly oblate, 2-5cm in diameter, 1-4cm high, white or dirty white in the initial stage, grayish brown or dark brown after maturity. The exospores are composed of small white verrucous short spores, which are shed in the later stage, revealing a smooth inner coating. The inner sporopollen is white when young, then yellowish-white, and brownish-grey or brown when mature. The sterile base is well-developed and sturdy, separated from the spore producing part by a clear transverse membrane. The sporangia are colorless or nearly colorless to brown, with thick walls with septa, and appendages on the surface. After mature, it ruptures into pores from the top, and spores are emitted from the pores. This is similar to some species of the genus Puffball, with the obvious difference being that there is a gap between the spore producing part and the sterile part.
Single, scattered or grouped in grassland, open grassland, forest edge grass in summer and autumn.
Distributed in my country’s Guangdong, Fujian, Hebei, Yunnan, Xinjiang, Tibet, etc.
Can be eaten when young.